When we look to our world’s last standing forests, our attention must turn to the world’s best and most experienced conservationists: indigenous peoples, who have cared for their forest homes for thousands of years. A recent LandMark study showed that, globally, indigenous people are exceptionally good at protecting their territories (Garnett et al. 2018). The study aggregated data worldwide and found that indigenous territories (both recognized and de facto) represent over a quarter of terrestrial habitats and overlap with about 40% of the world’s protected and intact areas. They also show that indigenous people have not only been extremely judicious in their use of land, leading to high-quality, natural landscapes, but that because of this, indigenous lands will be instrumental in the quest for preserving the last intact forests on earth and, thus, tackling the climate crisis.

In the Amazon, as elsewhere, the ancestors discovered through trial and error how to not only promote the regeneration of their native ecosystem but to enhance its properties for their own community’s benefit. The forest contains not only species richness and carbon sinks, but ancient home gardens, cultivated by the great-great grandmothers; Amazonian dark earth, built up by generations of organic waste, and oxbow lakes, meanders purposefully cut off by the old-timers to make fishing trips shorter.

An old Ungurahua tree, Amazonian dark earth, and an Oxbow lake.

Conservation, check

Studies across the Western Amazon have proven indigenous communities to be faithful stewards of their ancestral lands. Land tenure was found to be strongly indicative of the fate of the forest in the Bolivian Amazon, where private colono holdings were the best explainer of old-growth forest loss (Paneque-Gálvez et al. 2013). Indigenously held lands and conservation areas faired equally well in forest-cover indicators. “From a biocultural conservation perspective, our results suggest that future conservation policies in Bolivia should emphasize the potential key role of native Amazonians in effectively protecting old-growth forests and expand the existing network of indigenous TCOs [titled indigenous territories] accordingly.” (Paneque-Gálvez et al. 2013, p.12)

In the Peruvian Amazon, a study which used satellite images to gauge the effect of titling indigenous lands between 2002 and 2005 found that, “on average, titling reduces forest clearing by more than three-quarters and forest disturbance by roughly two-thirds in a 2-y window spanning the year title is awarded and the year afterward. These results suggest that awarding formal land titles to local communities can advance forest conservation.” (Blackman et al. 2017, p. 4123)

A participatory mapping project carried out with the Kofan in their traditional territories in Colombia and Ecuador showed that they are highly protective of forests. In the areas of their land that have not been illegally invaded by colonizers, 80% of the forest remains (Stocks et al. 2016). As another example, Sinangoe, a Kofan community in the Ecuadorian Amazon, recently won a landmark legal case to protect their ancestral lands, which had been allocated by the government as gold-mining concessions abutting the Cayambe-Coca National park, effectively safeguarding a biodiversity hotspot of international import.

Inhabitants of Sinangoe, a Kofan community accessible only by footbridge or boat, have successfully kept their forest intact and recently demonstrated their continued commitment to conservation in a landmark ruling against mining

In the Ecuadorian Amazonian provinces of Sucumbíos and Orellana, parks were shown to reduce deforestation especially well where they overlapped with indigenous territories, contradicting the theory that intersecting land tenure leads to ambiguity and, hence, profiteering. Overall, though, indigenous lands that were not protected did not fare better than privately held lands. (Holland et al. 2014). Indigenous territories do not completely escape the modern pressures put on ecosystems. The Ecuadorian Amazon is criss-crossed with more than 9500 km of roads, all leading eventually to market. A study conducted among four Kichwa communities in the Sumaco Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, found that market integration has an important impact on forest clearing, despite the indigenous rules and institutions in place (Oldekop et al. 2013).

The World Resources Institute looked at the benefits of avoided deforestation in indigenous lands in the Western Amazon region. They found that deforestation rates were 2.8 and 2 times lower in indigenous lands of the Bolivian and Colombia Amazon, respectively, than outside indigenous lands. Securing indigenous forestland in Bolivia and Colombia could avoid 8.04 and 3.01, respectively, of Mt CO2 per year, the equivalent of roughly 1 700 000 passenger cars per year in the case of Bolivia’s forestland. A paper evaluating the unrecognized contribution of indigenous territories to forest carbon in the entire Amazon basin found that an area larger than the Amazonian regions of Ecuador, Colombia and Peru combined is, nonetheless, at risk of disturbance (Walker et al. 2014). A World Bank report estimates that 80% of the world’s biodiversity resides inside traditional indigenous territories (Sobrevilia, 2008).

Wellbeing and health, check

Along with the climate and biodiversity benefits of conserving forests, regaining land-title and authority over their lands also has health benefits for indigenous peoples – a win-win-win solution. In a worldview where well-being encompasses much more than economic solvency, one can generally group indicators of health and well-being into three categories: material, social and spiritual/cultural (Hiemstra et al, 2014). The material needs include food, water, health care, shelter, and, importantly, in this case, security. Social well-being indicators are relational and comprise requisites for identity, belonging and self-esteem. The spiritual and cultural aspects cover tangible values related to sacred places, totemic animals, artefacts, and custodians as well as intangible values related to festivals, beliefs, customs and language.

Waorani woman harvesting from the forest, Ecuadorian Amazon.

Seen from this standpoint, intact and thriving ecosystems are integral to almost every aspect of health for forest peoples. The forests provide food, water, medicines and housing materials, meeting indigenous peoples’ basic material needs. Acquiring land title affords land security and ensures economic security for peoples dependant on forest products for cash income. Intact ecosystems also protect from many of the natural disasters that affect disturbed environments, such as landslides and water shortages.

The Kofan study points out the importance of intact areas for the sustainability of forest medicinal plants such as yagé (known elsewhere as ayahuasca). An innovative protected area designated in 2008 in Colombia has established traditional ecological knowledge as a conservation target and is working with the Kofan to monitor the health of culturally important species such as Paullinia yoco, used in a traditional morning beverage, and Geonoma sp, used in thatching. (Stocks et al. 2016)

Siona woman caring for a yoko plant, Ecuadorian Amazon.

Andrea Bravo Díaz, a doctoral candidate at University College London conducting research on the sensorial experience of wellbeing among the Waorani, explained in an interview that in the Waorani cosmovision, many pathological elements (both physical and social) come from the outside, often along roads, and are associated with disturbed environments, not intact ones. The Waorani territory, situated in the heart of the Ecuadorian Amazon, is one of the most pristine, although over the last half-century the petroleum industry has opened up roads into their ancestral lands and with the recent announcement to auction off one of their last roadless areas, this could soon change.

Title of traditional lands imbues a sense of belonging to cultures whose identity is intricately linked to landscape features, strengthening social ties and providing them with the autonomy to make collective decisions. Specific arrangements based on communal laws can have profound impacts on equality, especially women’s equality, reducing the negative health impacts that inequality has on communities. The ability to meet needs and negotiate with external agencies on equal footing nourishes individuals’ and communities’ self-esteem.

“Indigenous-led conservation is key as it provides forest people a space where they experience themselves as strong, healthy, and vigorous.”

“Indigenous-led conservation is key as it provides forest people a space where they experience themselves as strong, healthy, and vigorous.”

Andrea Bravo Díaz illustrates it this way, “For the Waorani, and other forest peoples, health is intricately linked to identity. At the same time, Waorani identity is inextricably linked to the forest – the smells, the freshness, the flavors, the nutrients. When you destroy the forest, you destroy forest people’s identity. In this sense, indigenous-led conservation is key as it provides forest people a space where they experience themselves as strong, healthy, and vigorous.”

The spiritual wellbeing of forest peoples depends on intact ritual sites and the wellbeing of ecosystems as a whole. The Ashaninka people of the Peruvian Amazon are pushing for a conservation project which they see as, “[a] process aimed at restoring the socio-natural relations between Ashaninka people and their other-than-human neighbours that were undone by the violence of war and are still being undone by extractive development projects. Indeed, in this context the links between humans, other-than-humans, and place are such that the wellbeing of one is impossible without that of the others.” (Sarmiento Barletti, 2016, p. 47)

Conversely, numerous studies have shown that the alienating effect of creating parks without local consent can backfire on conservation objectives and also compromise the wellbeing of people who relied on the area for their material, social and spiritual health (Fernández-Manjarrés et al. 2018; Redpath et al. 2013; Young et al. 2010). And still, most conservation projects have been dreamed up and evaluated using Euro-centric standards (Le Tourneau et al. 2015); if we were to embark on a truly integrative journey we would shed our occidental assumptions and yard sticks.

Amazon Frontline’s sister organization, an Ecuadorian alliance of four indigenous nations fighting for land rights and self-determination, chose the name Ceibo Alliance for their unique coalition. Ceibo is the Spanish name for the Kapok tree. This great Kapok tree is much more than a carbon sink or a habitat for epiphytes; it is a symbol of indigenous identity, pride and solidarity, a temple, a destination, and a custodian of tradition, wellbeing and health.

Amazon Frontline’s sister organization, an Ecuadorian alliance of four indigenous nations fighting for land rights and self-determination, chose the name Ceibo Alliance for their unique coalition. Ceibo is the Spanish name for the Kapok tree. This great Kapok tree is much more than a carbon sink or a habitat for epiphytes; it is a symbol of indigenous identity, pride and solidarity, a temple, a destination, and a custodian of tradition, wellbeing and health.

References

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Fernández-Manjarrés, J. F., S. Roturier and A.-G. Bilhaut (2018). “The emergence of the social-ecological restoration concept.” Restoration Ecology 26(3): 404-410. https://doi-org.proxy.bibliotheques.uqam.ca/10.1111/rec.12685

Garnett, S. T., N. D. Burgess, J. E. Fa, Á. Fernández-Llamazares, Z. Molnár, C. J. Robinson, J. E. M. Watson, K. K. Zander, B. Austin, E. S. Brondizio, N. F. Collier, T. Duncan, E. Ellis, H. Geyle, M. V. Jackson, H. Jonas, P. Malmer, B. McGowan, A. Sivongxay and I. Leiper (2018). “A spatial overview of the global importance of Indigenous lands for conservation.” Nature Sustainability 1(7): 369-374. https://doi-org.proxy.bibliotheques.uqam.ca/10.1038/s41893-018-0100-6

Hiemstra, W., S. M. Subramanian and B. Verschuuren (2014). CHAPTER 2: Exploring a new approach to well-being assessment. Community Well-being in Biocultural Landscapes: Are we living well? B. Verschuuren, S. M. Subramanian and W. Hiemstra. Warwickshire, UK, Practical Action Publishing. https://doi.org/10.3362/9781780448374

Holland, M. B., F. de Koning, M. Morales, L. Naughton-Treves, B. E. Robinson and L. Suárez (2014). “Complex Tenure and Deforestation: Implications for Conservation Incentives in the Ecuadorian Amazon.” World Development 55: 21-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.01.012

Le Tourneau, F.-M. (2015). “The sustainability challenges of indigenous territories in Brazil’s Amazonia.” Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 14: 213-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2015.07.017

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Stocks, A., M. Ruiz Reyes and C. A. Rios-Franco (2016). “GIS and the A’i of Colombia: Reserves, Resguardos and the Future.” International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research (IJAGR) 7(3): 71-83. DOI: 10.4018/IJAGR.2016070103

Walker, W., A. Baccini, S. Schwartzman, S. Ríos, M. A. Oliveira-Miranda, C. Augusto, M. R. Ruiz, C. S. Arrasco, B. Ricardo, R. Smith, C. Meyer, J. C. Jintiach and E. V. Campos (2014). “Forest carbon in Amazonia: the unrecognized contribution of indigenous territories and protected natural areas.” Carbon Management 5(5-6): 479-485. https://doi-org.proxy.bibliotheques.uqam.ca/10.1080/17583004.2014.990680

Young, J. C., M. Marzano, R. M. White, D. I. McCracken, S. M. Redpath, D. N. Carss, C. P. Quine and A. D. Watt (2010). “The emergence of biodiversity conflicts from biodiversity impacts: characteristics and management strategies.” Biodiversity and Conservation 19(14): 3973-3990. https://doi-org.proxy.bibliotheques.uqam.ca/10.1007/s10531-010-9941-7

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